Wednesday, 3 December 2014

Getting a School Web Design

It is a typical thought among individuals that a school web configuration ought to be basically essential and bland in looks. Then again, schools and instructive foundations that are going for its future understudies and their yearning folks to be drawn towards them, or simply need to inspire its workforce, graduated class or different organizations choose sites that have smooth hand crafts and consistent usefulness. Such school web outline draw a considerable measure of consideration while providing for its guest a flash of what the establishment can accomplish. Albeit different components of a site like the substance impact a guest's choice to return, individuals do affection generally composed sites with intriguing substance.

Suitable for your School

Site guests are inspired by cutting edge, shortsighted and crisp looking sites that are not difficult to explore. A decently outlined site gets to be crucial independent of the span of your organization. To think of a smooth, crisp, current yet simple to-explore site, it is important to search for a web planner with imagination and a great deal of web advancement experience.

Fundamental Qualities of a School

A school web configuration ought to basically have the accompanying essential qualities:

• Unique Graphic Design

• Clear Interface Design

• Interactive Flash Design

• Section 508 similarity

• Cross Platform, Cross Browser Compatibility

• Easy Maintenance & Quick Load Times

• Website Re-Engineering & Website Maintenance

Favorable circumstances of Having a School Web Design

There are numerous focal points of having a site set up for your school. Few of them are recorded underneath:

• Gain neighborhood, local or overall introduction

• Reduce promoting plan and advance web joins

• Keep understudies, employees and folks educated

• Host preparing materials on site for at whatever time get to by understudies and staff

• Be on showcase 24 hours a day and 7 days a week

• Enhance your school's picture

• Increase mindfulness about school

• Increase correspondence with folks

• Maintain straightforwardness in framework

• Get moment criticism from site guests

Step by step instructions to Get Started with a New School?

1) Custom Web Development

It is dependably a keen decision to counsel an expert web configuration and advancement organization that can give a show of web outline benefits that suit your foundation's requirements. These administrations may incorporate, however not restricted to, custom web improvement, blog creation, duplicate written work, feature generation, 2d/3d Animation, online features, sound creation, programming demos, CD-ROM Videos and so on.

2) Online Marketing

When a site is prepared, the following step is dependably to pull in the intended interest group. For web promoting, proficient web administration organizations offer administrations including Search Engine Optimization (SEO), Search Engine Marketing (SEM), Local Search, Organic Search, Social Media & Viral Marketing, Pay-Per-Click Management (PPC) and even Search Engine Anatomy. These administrations help you achieve your gathering of people in a more viable way. web design  

3) Graphic & Logo Design

A school like some other business is perceived as an issue. The logo outline of the school on the site and its logged off materials are similarly critical. These logged off materials incorporate the school's letterhead outline; conceal configuration, pamphlet plan, and so on. Expert configuration organizations give imaginative logo outline and marking, letterhead plan, HTML Newsletter Design, Brochure Design, Business Card Design and Envelope Design as a major aspect of their administrations portfolio. These administrations go far in building a brand name and picture for your school in the online and logged off group moreover.

4) School Website Domains & Hosting

A large portion of the little scale web plan organizations have extremely constrained administrations to offer. Such organizations generally have the ability and assets to plan and create the site for your school; then again, they don't assume responsibility of web area enlistment and facilitating. Some expert organizations, then again, offer administrations going from web outline, web advancement administrations to web area enrollment, web facilitating and email facilitating under one top. Notwithstanding these administrations you can likewise get SSL Certificates for secure site gets to and Website Virus Removal administrations in the event that you contract a full admin

Monday, 10 November 2014

Pro Football Betting Odds - Luck is Not the Only Thing You Need

If you need to know your pro footy betting odds, listen to this. all the countries in the world play footy. Footy is played by so plenty of generations from young to elderly, to professionals and blue-collared workers. These are fans that make it as their pastime but the professional league, college league and the lower age group leagues make footy a more fascinating sport to watch. That is why it is no surprise that people are getting increasingly involved in footy betting. The truth is, half of the individuals who watch this sport doesn't watch it for fun, they watch it to get money! Imagine being able to make money out of something you are passionate about. Would not that be the coolest thing in the world?

Footy betting also called as soccer betting is now getting increasingly famous online. The stakes are high but only in the event you have the right attitude, information and skills when it comes to betting. The primary thing you ought to learn before engaging in footy betting is getting educated. Plenty of sites now offer online footy tutorials. But in the event you need to get ahead, the most important thing to know is that you need to look at the team's statistics before betting on them. The chances of you winning are higher in the event you know the way to research your way to winning. Do not bet on the most liked or cheered team on a regular basis. Not because a team is popular doesn't mean that they win on a regular basis. Select the team whose statistics of winning from earlier fights are high.

Because of the quick rising betting in the Net, it is not as hard to bet as it was one time. You can explore for the sites through search engines and you can basically place your bet through you point spread o straight-up betting. The best thing about online footy betting is that it is possible for you to to get bonuses so that you can have more chances of winning. In the event you use your brains well, you will gain in no time.

Engaging in betting, you must be able to read between the lines of professional footy betting odds. The truth is the stakes of winnings cannot actually be calculated instantly. The stakes of you winning depends on the situation and there is no sure way to know in the event you bet on the right team. Sure, there's plenty of equations out there that say they have the ideal equation for winning but there is no way to find out. The best way is to select the that is more rational than those that are complicated, scientific or mathematical.

Always keep in mind that luck is not everything when you speak about pro footy betting odds. Those who do depend on pure luck alone lose most of the time because they depend on their gut feels. Keep in mind that the combination of luck and the right information will be a more deadly combination when it comes to winning bets.

Estimating Your Landscape Design Cost

Scene configuration expense is impacted by a few distinctive variables, running from one amazing to the next relying upon the points of interest of each one venture. While there are free plan plans accessible, numerous property holders decide on an expert configuration to guarantee an outside space that supplements and upgrades the excellence of their property. There are numerous distinctive choices and an astounding choice of planners to browse, yet understanding the fundamentals with respect to the expense of scene configuration is a crucial piece of arranging your financial plan.

Deciding Landscape Design Price

There are numerous distinctive things that have influence in deciding the genuine expense of your scene plan, however there are three essential impacts. Understanding these will provide for you a general thought of the amount cash you ought to designate to scene plan.

The general size of your property is the greatest impact on scene configuration cost. Most outline bundles are focused around a normal parcel size, normally around 10,000 square feet, and are balanced for more diminutive or bigger properties.

The extent of the range to be finished is additionally essential. A complete idea configuration plan for your whole yard will cost significantly more than a planting arrangement for the front of your home.

Your scene outline expense is additionally dictated by the peculiarities and alternatives you want. Numerous expert configuration administrations offer a mixed bag of bundles so it is not difficult to figure the surmised cost of your undertaking.

Scene Design Options

Your expense will depend extraordinarily on the subtle elements, peculiarities, and sorts of finishing you need to consolidate. Swimming pool plan, hardscape arrangements, and other claim to fame finishing will influence the expense of the outline, as will lighting and seepage plans. Select a scene plan builder that can furnish you with a bundle that best addresses the needs of you and your home.

What Does the Design Cost Include?

A common scene outline bundle incorporates itemized arrangements and guidelines for introducing your open air venture. The arrangements are normally custom attracted to suit your needs and are exhibited in Autocad group. The graph is very definite, with representations, establishment notes, and then some. Most bundles will likewise incorporate extra duplicates of the arrangement, regularly in high contrast, for record keeping and different employments.

The expense of your scene outline will for the most part exclude the cost of materials or the expense of work to introduce the configuration. These are incorporated in the scene establishment cost. Finding a scene builder that gives both configuration and establishment administrations is frequently an incredible approach to spare cash on your aggregate venture. Illustrations of common scene outline bundles and their expenses can be found here for further reference.

Whether you're considering a complete scene outline remodel, introducing an open air lighting arrangement, or basically requiring a planting arrangement for a bloom enclosure with year round shade, an expert configuration will upgrade the general excellence of your home. Understanding the fundamentals of scene configuration expense will help you set a financial plan.

Custom Designing Your Jewelry Using 3D-CAD Technology

For quite a long time specially crafted gems has been made utilizing old world systems dating as far over as the 1800's. As of not long ago, practically all-specially crafted gems was made utilizing these routines. The presentation of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) has changed all that and's afterward introduced an entire new universe of conceivable outcomes. Outlines that were never thought conceivable can be made to the most elevated quality principles.

How is Custom Designed Jewelry Made? Before researching the profits of 3d-CAD you'll have to know all the more about the custom adornments outline process. Most gems is made utilizing a strategy called lost wax throwing. A gifted artisan/gem specialist hand cuts an adornments model out of goldsmiths wax utilizing little surgical blades and blades. This wax model otherwise called a "model" is set in a jar and mortar called "venture" is spilled all around the model. Once the venture solidifies a careful impression of the model is structured within the cup. The wax model is wore out of the flagon leaving a hole of the adornments outline.

Next liquid metal is infused in the cup mold utilizing vacuum or diffusive throwing. At the point when the metal cools and solidifies the venture is split away uncovering the un-completed adornments throwing. This throwing is documented, cleaned and prepared for gathering, which may incorporate setting the gemstones or welding different valuable metal parts to the throwing.

The methodology of hand cutting the wax model has dependably been the acknowledged procedure for making custom gems. The issue with this procedure is that the human hand can't be as exact as a machine helped machine when cutting the model. Exactness likens to more plan potential outcomes and much higher quality adornments generation. At last you'll have an item that looks crisper and won't be inclined to stone misfortune or breakage.

What is Computer Aided Design? Machine Aided Design is a modern demonstrating methodology utilizing progressed programming to plot coordinates for mechanical drawings. These drawings can be sent out to different sorts of prototyping machines called CNC factories or developing machines. CNC factories cut-away material from a square of wax to make the gems model. The developing machines layer material from side to side much like a printer to assemble the model, examples of this methodology can be seen at plan your engagement ring The accuracy of these models surpasses what any human could do while hand cutting the adornments model. Plan conceivable outcomes get to be boundless in light of the fact that the 3d-CAD programming empowers the creator to make parts and outline components that aren't conceivable utilizing antiquated devices and routines.

An alternate advantage of 3d-CAD adornments configuration is the capacity to see a machine rendering before the last finishing of the gems. In old routines the gem dealer would make rough counter outlines of your idea and the rest would be left to your creative ability. Presently the outlines that the goldsmith makes in 3d-CAD can be rendered to photograph reasonable pictures for you to view before settling on your last choices.

Picking a Jeweler for Custom Jewelry Design Like some other occupation or exchange there are great gems specialists and there are terrible ones. It is imperative to prescreen your gem dealer to figure out whether he/she is talented at making specially crafted adornments. Ask to see their portfolio and analyze their plans to figure out whether the style they have for gems outline matches your style necessities. Additionally, give careful consideration to their correspondence and understanding abilities on the grounds that much can lose all sense of direction in the interpretation of your thoughts in case you're not cautious. Once the gems is made its so late it would be impossible roll out improvements and the average diamond setter won't re-make it again without included expenses.

As of right now higher qualified and better talented custom adornments originators have moved to utilizing 3d-CAD to make their plans. On the off chance that you feel 2 gem specialists are similarly matched in inclination and abilities then you ought to pick the particular case that is utilizing 3d-CAD outline. You'll pay somewhat more to have your gems made in 3d-CAD however the last comes about will be astonishing. The adornments will look 1000% better than if it were hand cut and it will last any longer in light of the exactness of the gems model.

Andy Moquin


Andrews Jewelers Inc.

Andy Moquin has put in 20 years in the gems business purchasing and offering over $20,000,000 in precious stones, engagement rings and specially crafted adornments. He as headed out to Belgium and Israel to work with universal jewel merchants and acts as a guide for DBC Diamonds a worldwide consortium of precious stone merchants. His involvement in the gems business has gotten to be important to shoppers and entrepreneurs. He can be reached at look into jewels or 716-630-7091

The Top Five Free Sports Bets

On the off chance that you are new to games wagering then you may not be mindful that the lion's share of online bookies offer free wagers to allure you to wager with them. This is incredible news for you as it means you can fence your wager and stand more risk of winning. This aide has been composed to highlight the five best free wagers accessible with the bookies.

Wager 365

Wager 365 is the master of in match wagering and you can get yourself a truly wonderful reward offering in the event that you visit the site. You can presently get yourself £100 in free wagers and this is the way it lives up to expectations:

1. Visit the Bet 365 landing page and register for new record.

2 Deposit a few finances by any of the permitted strategies and put down your first wager of £5 or more and you will fit the bill for a free matched wager worth up to £25.

3. You will now be sent an email containing a reference number that ought to be embedded into the wager slip and checked.

4. In the wake of putting down your first free wager, put a further 5 qualifying wagers of £5 or more, and you will fit the bill for a moment free wager with Bet 365, to the same esteem as your most diminutive qualifying wager, up to a greatest of £25.

5. You can rehash this methodology until you have gotten four free wagers worth up to £100.

Wager Fred

In the event that you are searching for something that is a little less complex to take after than that on offer from Bet 365, then look at Bet Fred. You can get a straight up £50 free wager with them and you should simply wager £50 conflicting of levels or more prominent. When you have put down the qualifying wager then your record will be credited with the free wagered.

Victor Chandler

Victor Chandler additionally has a free £50 wager that you can advantage from. Simply open a record with VC and spot a wager of £5 and you will be given a free matched wager up to the same quality. The base chances that the qualifying wager must be set at are 2.0 so remember this else you may not get the reward.

Paddy Power

At Paddy Power you will discover a portion of the best cash back offers accessible out of any of the bookmakers. They likewise have one of the best sign up rewards around as you just need to wager £10 yourself to fit the bill for £20 free.


In the event that you take after soccer then you will have most likely seen the bookie BWIN publicized a considerable amount. They are pack backers of Real Madrid and Bayern Munich and have manufactured a decent notoriety because of their incredible chances. In the event that you join BWIN today and put down a wager with them you will get a free wager to the same esteem up to £30.

So there you go - in the event that you are looking to put down a games wager then you could do a great deal more regrettable than look at the free offers accessible however the bookies that have b

Saturday, 8 November 2014

Planning Your Web Site

The World Wide Web is about data. The Web alludes to an assortment of data available to individuals as far and wide as possible. The World Wide Web utilizes the Internet to transmit hypermedia archives between machines all around.

A Web Site makes a collection of data accessible freely on the World Wide Web. It gives gigantic correspondence chances to impart and present a gathering of interrelated data. Regardless of the essentialness, numerous keep on overlookking the compelling part substance plays in their Web Site's general achievement.

Site viewers are basic. They go to a site with desires. Viewers hope to discover applicable, instructive, current data. Essentially, viewers expect elegantly composed content. Disclosure of anything less impels feedback and the likelihood of lost validity.


Web Designers otherwise called Web Developers are in charge of creating, making the visual impacts, programming, application and database advancement, facilitating, and a mixed bag of other related Internet advances. Sometimes does the fashioner figure the correspondence methodology and creator the substance required for the Web Site. As a general rule, the Web Site manager is in charge of their correspondence procedure and substance.


Arranging the data method and composing the substance required for a Web Site is a multi-faceted undertaking obliging an efficient methodology.

Correspondence Plan - Developing a correspondence arrangement makes it less demanding to stay composed and gives an agenda to your composition necessities. The initial phase in making your arrangement is to create your site's correspondence destinations. At that point figure the kind of substance required to meet your objectives and fulfill the data necessities of your intended interest group. The misstep numerous site managers make is not giving sufficient data. Destination arranging will help you verify your Web Site conveys and fulfills the data desires of your viewer.

From an on-line advertising stance, it is advantageous amid the arranging stage to direct research and investigation of the essential word and catchphrase states your intended interest group employments. There are numerous assets accessible to help you with your deliberations. Notwithstanding abetting your on-line promoting endeavors, essential word examination will likewise help you focus important watchwords and catchphrase expressions to use in the assortment of the content.


Your Web Site substance will assume an imperative part in your picture. It is vital that each Web page of your Web Site needs to be elegantly composed - and enhanced with significant decisive words and catchphrase phrases.

Despite the topic, it is crucial that the content be syntactically right. Don't let your viewer leave frustrated, edit each one page to verify the content is free of syntactic issues, spelling missteps and different slips.

What about Your Web Site Content?

At the point when opportunity clicks....will your Web Site content viably impart your motivation and satisfy the data desires of the viewer. Then again, will the site's pitiful substance and inadequately composed duplicate harm your picture?

Perhaps the time it now, time to examine your Web Site Content. Pose a couple of inquiries. For instance:

odoes your Web Site convey enough data to fulfill the peruser?

oare the viewers addresses about your administrations or items replied?

odoes the data furnished fortify your association with the viewer?

ois the tex elegantly composed: clear, brief and syntactically right?

oare fitting catchphrases and essential word expressions included in the group of the content?


In the event that you sense, you don't have the experience or aptitudes required to handle the multi-faceted prerequisites of your Web Site substance enlist an expert Web Site marketing specialist to do it for you. Notwithstanding composing quality content, they can repurpose existing records, showcasing, and other content for your on-line battle. They can likewise serve as a powerful guide. Serving to purpose your on-line correspondence challenges and create the data procedure.

Monday, 1 September 2014

The Three Day Potty Training

The 3 day potty training or Intensive toilet training methods have become increasingly popular due to the demands of modern living and parent's time. Often, parents have to "schedule" time to take care of teaching this essential skill to their toddler. The benefits of using an intensive method far outweigh the drawbacks in trying to "let it take care of itself" and responsible parenthood requires taking the time.

I used Carol Cline's 3 day potty training method and found it simple to understand, implement and very useful. It was a successful method for us and I wrote the following article as a guide for parents who are considering using this method. It is simply a quick overview of what the book covers, chapter by chapter, so you can have an idea of what kind of content is in the book before you buy.

The book describes how to potty train in 3 days. It is 136 pages long and can easily be read in a few hours. I would imagine that the book is engagingly read by all parents about to embark on toilet training toddlers. However, Carol Cline intersperses the methodology with an historical overview of the process and general advice, gained from experience, of what to expect from your toddler during this time and also what you may experience yourself.

Chapter 1: The first chapter debunks the modern myth that children can toilet train themselves and that the later parents leave it to toilet train their children, the easier it will be. Children are potty trained later in the USA and Canada than in most of the world. She promotes a potty training method that is child centred and caring; but one that is also consistent and achieves results. Her belief is that potty training is a mutual achievement between the child and the parent and will deepen the relationship between them. This premise is carried throughout the book.

Chapter 2: This chapter sets out what is the best age to start potty training and includes guidelines for potty training toddlers aged between 18-24 months old with specific advice for parents who are trying to potty train older children.

Chapter 3: The key to successful potty training is knowing when your child is ready. This chapter goes into detail on the potty training readiness signs so you will know when the best time to start potty training your child is.

Chapter 4: Believe it or not, you need to prepare yourself first and then prepare your child. This chapter takes you through the necessity of relaxing through the process, how to handle your own expectations, what you should expect using the method, what to do and what not to do.

Chapter 5: This chapter takes you from your own expectations and the "adult mind" into the mind of your child so you can prepare them for their journey ahead. It explains the sequence of how children learn which helps you know what's going on. It also details what you can do beforehand to make the learning process easier e.g. taking "no-pressure" potty breaks before you actually start training so your child starts to become familiar with the process.

Chapter 6 and 7: These chapters take you step-by-step through what you need to have done before you start your "potty training in 3 days method" from clearing your schedule to the best foods to buy at the supermarket.

Chapter 8: This is the heart of the book. The pre-potty training "work" in the preceding chapters is not onerous and if the advice in them is followed, you will have done a lot of preparation that will reap rewards on your potty training days. The method is not set in stone but can be adapted to suit your family situation and needs. However, it does emphasise the need to be persistent, consistent, patient, loving and staying positive. It is a method that works with your child and treats them kindly throughout the process. It is a child centered approach that refocuses the adult mind into thinking of the world of a child. One of the best things about this method is that Carol Cline describes a very simple tool to encourage your toddler to use the potty that avoids the perennial "no".

The chapter also includes advice about night time potty training and observations and insights from other parents who have used the method. I found the chapter very, very useful - not least because of the methodology itself. It walks you through what you should expect, how you may feel, what to do if it goes badly and even what to do if it goes well!

Chapter 9: This chapter is a surprise inclusion. For those of us who are a little "rusty" on biology 101, this is the chapter to read! It is a basic biology lesson on our bodily functions. It then gives advice and guidance on how to ensure children adopt a healthy urination and bowel movement pattern.

Chapter 10: This is the chapter where Carol Cline leads you past thinking in terms of just potty training at home. It details how to approach potty training with your child's entire development and social situation in mind. As such it extends to teaching your child how to wipe their bum (with a novel system that won't block your plumbing with toilet paper) and how to wash their hands. At the end of the chapter, you won't be thinking about your child as a potty training toddler but as a "big kid" able to handle himself at kindergarten and pre-school.

Chapter 11: If you are about to start potty training a boy, a girl or twins this chapter will prove invaluable. It dismisses some of the myths and re-inforces the belief that every child is an individual. It deals with some typical obstacles and how to get past them in a positive way. If potty training has not worked for you in the past, or if you have a particularly stubborn child, then Carol Cline provides some very good adaptations to the method to cope with this situation. From the child's perspective, Carol Cline again puts you in their shoes and deals with some common fears your child may have and how to deal with them. I found the part on incentives and rewards particularly useful and it is something that I have put into practice in other areas of my parenting.

Chapter 12: Parents of children with Autism, Asperger's and Down Syndrome face particular challenges in trying to potty train. The chapter deals with these issues and covers area such as language issues, sensory problems, the stress of learning a new skill and visual aids to potty training. It also includes some observations and advice from parents who have been through and are going through a similar situation.

Chapter 13: This covers in a little more detail the "bumps in the road" and how to respond to them in a positive way.

Chapter 14: It may be that you feel that your child may have a medical problem and this chapter points you in the right direction on how to recognise it and what to do about it.

Chapter 15: "Out in the world" is the title of this chapter and this is where you will spend most of your time with your potty training toddler! It covers everything from going to the mall and on long haul flights; what to bring and suggestions for how to explain to your toddler about "special situations". Like any parent, I found planning trips and outings more stressful than I would like in the beginning and Carol Cline puts it into perspective so you can emerge from a trip to the mall having enjoyed yourself rather than making potty training the centre of your world.

In order to gain the most from the book, I would suggest purchasing it a month before you plan to potty train. You will have the time to read the book a few times and really absorb the methodology. This makes it easier to "get ahead" on the practical stuff like clearing your schedule and getting everything organised.

Tuesday, 12 August 2014


From Wikipedia, the free reference book

"The Old Dominion" redirects here. For different utilization, see Old Dominion (disambiguation) and Virginia (disambiguation).

Province of Virginia

War fleet blue banner with the roundabout Seal of Virginia fixated on it. a round seal with the words "Virginia" on the top and "Sic Semper Tyrannis" on the base. In the focal point, a lady wearing a blue frock and Athenian protective cap remains on the midsection of dead man wearing a purple breastplate and skirt. The lady holds a lance and sheathed sword. The man holds a broken chain while his crown lies far from the figures. Orange leaves encompass the seal.

Flag seal

Nickname(s): Old Dominion; Mother of Presidents; Mother of States

Motto(s): Sic semper tyrannis

(English: Thus Always to Tyrants)[1]

Virginia is spotted on the Atlantic drift along the line that partitions the Northern and Southern parts of the United States. It runs for the most part east to west. It incorporates a little landmass over an inlet which is irregular with whatever is left of the state.

Official language english

Talked languages english 94.6%, Spanish 5.4%

Demonym virginian

Capital richmond

Biggest city virginia Beach

Biggest metro washington metropolitan range

Area ranked 35th

- Total 42,774.2 sq mi

(110,785.67 km2)

- Width 200 miles (320 km)

- Length 430 miles (690 km)

- % water 7.4

- Latitude 36° 32′ N to 39° 28′ N

- Longitude 75° 15′ W to 83° 41′ W

Population ranked twelfth

- Total 8,260,405 (2013 est)[2]

- Density 206.7/sq mi  (79.8/km2)

Positioned fourteenth

- Median family income $61,044 (eighth)


- Highest point mount Rogers[3][4]

5,729 ft (1746 m)

- Mean 950 ft  (290 m)

- Lowest point atlantic Ocean[3]

ocean level

Before statehood colony of Virginia

Admission to Union june 25, 1788 (tenth)

Governor terry Mcauliffe (D)

Lieutenant Governor ralph Northam (D)

Legislature general Assembly

- Upper house senate

- Lower house house of Delegates

U.s. Senators mark Warner (D)

Tim Kaine (D)

U.s. House delegation 8 Republicans,

3 Democrats (rundown)

Time zone eastern: UTC −5/−4

Abbreviations va, US-VA


Virginia (Listeni/vərˈdʒɪnjə/), authoritatively the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a U.s. state placed in the South Atlantic locale of the United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" because of its status as a previous domain of the English Crown,[5] and "Mother of Presidents" because of the most U.s. presidents having been conceived there. The topography and atmosphere of the Commonwealth are molded by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which give environment to much of its greenery. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most crowded city, and Fairfax County is the most crowded political subdivision. The Commonwealth's assessed populace starting 2013 is in excess of 8.2 million.[2]

The territory's history starts with a few indigenous gatherings, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company created the Colony of Virginia as the first lasting New World English settlement. Slave work and the area procured from relocated Native American tribes each one assumed a noteworthy part in the settlement's initial governmental issues and estate economy. Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution and joined the Confederacy in the American Civil War, amid which Richmond was made the Confederate capital and Virginia's northwestern regions withdrew to structure the state of West Virginia. Despite the fact that the Commonwealth was under single-gathering principle for a century after Reconstruction, both real national gatherings are focused in present day Virginia.[6]

The Virginia General Assembly is the most seasoned constant law-production body in the New World.[7] The state government has been over and over positioned best by the Pew Center on the States.[8] It is extraordinary by they way it treats urban areas and regions similarly, oversees nearby streets, and denies its governors from serving continuous terms. Virginia's economy has numerous parts: agribusiness in the Shenandoah Valley; government organizations in Northern Virginia, including the base camp of the Department of Defense and CIA; and military offices in Hampton Roads, the site of the area's fundamental seaport. Virginia's economy transitioned from basically rural to mechanical amid the 1960s and 1970s, and in 2002 workstation chips turned into the state's heading export.[9]

Substance  [hide]

1 Geography

1.1 Geology and landscape

1.2 Climate

1.3 Flora and fauna

2 History

2.1 Colony

2.2 Statehood

2.3 Civil War and outcome

2.4 Modern time

3 Cities and towns

4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnicity

4.2 Languages

4.3 Religion

5 Economy

5.1 Government

5.2 Business

5.3 Agriculture

5.4 Taxes

6 Culture

6.1 Fine and performing expressions

6.2 Festivals

7 Media

8 Education

9 Health

10 Transportation

11 Law and government

12 Politics

13 Sports

14 State images

15 See additionally

16 References

17 Bibliography



Principle article: Culture of Virginia

Five ladies wearing long pioneer style garments sit on the stairs of tan and beige structures talking. Before them is a wooden wheelbarrow brimming with wicker bushel.

Pilgrim Virginian society, dialect, and style are reenacted in Williamsburg.

Virginia's society was advanced and spread crosswise over America and the South by figures, for example, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Robert E. Lee. Their homes in Virginia speak to the origin of America and the South.[188] Modern Virginia society has numerous sources, and is some piece of the society of the Southern United States.[189] The Smithsonian Institution separates Virginia into nine social regions.[190]

Other than the general cooking of the Southern United States, Virginia keeps up its own particular specific customs. Virginia wine is made in numerous parts of the state.[185] Smithfield ham, at times called "Virginia ham", is a kind of nation ham which is ensured by state law, and must be created in the town of Smithfield.[191] Virginia furniture and building design are average of American pioneer construction modeling. Thomas Jefferson and large portions of the state's initial pioneers supported the Neoclassical building design style, prompting its utilization for vital state structures. The Pennsylvania Dutch and their style can likewise be found in parts of the state.[127]

Writing in Virginia regularly manages the state's far reaching and off and on again disturbed past. The works of Pulitzer Prize victor Ellen Glasgow frequently managed social imbalances and the part of ladies in her culture.[192] Glasgow's companion and close companion James Branch Cabell composed widely about the changing position of nobility in the Reconstruction period, and tested its ethical code with Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice.[193] William Styron approached history in works, for example, The Confessions of Nat Turner and Sophie's Choice.[194] Tom Wolfe has once in a while managed his southern legacy in successes like I Am Charlotte Simmons.[195] Mount Vernon local Matt Bondurant got discriminating praise for his notable novel The Wettest County in the World about moonshiners in Franklin County amid prohibition.[196] Virginia likewise names a state Poet Laureate, at present Ron Smith of Richmond, who will serve until mid-2016.[197]

Fine and performing arts[edit]

See additionally: Music of Virginia

A little, boxy, wooden stage with a trapezoidal shade remains in the core of knoll. In the forefront is a running stream with a stone bank.

The Meadow Pavilion is one of the theaters at Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts.

Rich in social legacy, Virginia positions close to the lowest part of U.s. states as far as open using on expressions of the human experience, at about a large portion of the national average.[198] The state government does finance a few organizations, including the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and the Science Museum of Virginia. Different storehouses incorporate the famous Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum and the Chrysler Museum of Art.[199] Besides these locales, numerous outside storehouses are placed in the Commonwealth, for example, Colonial Williamsburg, the Frontier Culture Museum, and different notable battlefields.[200] The Virginia Foundation for the Humanities attempts to enhance the Commonwealth's city, social, and erudite life.[201]

Theaters and venues in the Commonwealth are discovered both in the urban communities and suburbs. The Harrison Opera House, in Norfolk, is home of the Virginia Opera. The Virginia Symphony Orchestra works in and around Hampton Roads.[202] Resident and visiting theater troupes work from the American Shakespeare Center in Staunton.[203] The Barter Theater, assigned the State Theater of Virginia, in Abingdon won the first ever Regional Theater Tony Award in 1948, while the Signature Theater in Arlington won it in 2009. There's additionally a Children's Theater of Virginia, Theater IV, which is the second biggest visiting troupe nationwide.[204]

Virginia has dispatched numerous grant winning conventional musical specialists and globally effective well known music acts, and in addition Hollywood actors.[1] Virginia is known for its convention in the music sorts of outdated string and twang, with gatherings, for example, the Carter Family and Stanley Brothers, and gospel, soul, and yell bands.[205] Contemporary Virginia is additionally known for people rock craftsmen like Dave Matthews and Jason Mraz, hip bounce stars like Pharrell Williams and Missy Elliott, and whip metal gatherings like GWAR and Lamb of God.[206] Notable execution venues incorporate The Birchmere, the Landmark Theater, and Jiffy Lube Live.[207] Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts is spotted in Vienna and is the main national park expected for utilization as a performing expressions center.[208]


Many tan and white horses surge out of the shallow water onto a green shore gathered with spectators.

The yearly Chincoteague Pony Swim emphasizes in excess of 200 wild horses swimming over the Assateague Channel into Chincoteague.

Numerous areas and regions host area fairs and celebrations. The Virginia State Fair is held at the Meadow Event Park each September. Additionally in September is the Neptune Festival in Virginia Beach, which praises the city, the waterfront, and provincial craftsmen. Norfolk's Harborfest, in June, gimmicks watercraft dashing and air shows.[209] Fairfax County additionally backers Celebrate Fairfax! with mainstream and customary music performances.[210] The Virginia Lake Festival is held amid the third weekend in July in Clarksville.[211] Wolf Trap has the Wolf Trap Opera Company, which creates a musical show celebration each summer.[208] Each September, Bay Days commends the Chesapeake Bay and Hampton's 400 year history since 1610, and Isle of Wight County holds a County Fair on the second week of September also. Both peculiarity unrecorded music exhibitions, and other exceptional occasions.

On the Eastern Shore island of Chincoteague the yearly Pony Swim & Auction of wild Chincoteague p


Main articles: List of radio stations in Virginia & List of television stations in Virginia
 geometric all glass towers connected by a central atrium stand in front of a grassy walkway & under a dark & cloudy sky

USA Today, the nation's most circulated newspaper, has its headquarters in McLean.
The Hampton Roads area is the 45th-largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while the Richmond-Petersburg area is 57th & Roanoke-Lynchburg is 66th as of 2013.[213] Northern Virginia is part of the much larger Washington, D.C. media market.

There's 36 television stations in Virginia, representing each major U.S. network, part of 42 stations which serve Virginia viewers.[214] Over 720 FCC-licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Virginia, with about 300 such AM stations.[215][216] The nationally obtainable Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is headquartered in Arlington. Independent PBS associates exist throughout Virginia, & the Arlington PBS member station WETA-TV produces programs such as the PBS NewsHour & Washington Week.

The most circulated native newspapers in the Commonwealth are Norfolk's The Virginian-Pilot (142,476 every day subscribers), the Richmond Times-Dispatch (108,559), & The Roanoke Times (78,663), as of 2014.[217] Several Washington, D.C. papers are based in Northern Virginia, such as The Washington Examiner & Politico. The paper with the nation's widest circulation, USA Today, with one.83 million every day subscriptions, is headquartered in McLean.[218] Besides traditional forms of media, Virginia is the home base for telecommunication companies such as Voxant & XO Communications. In Northern Virginia, The Washington Post is the dominant newspaper, since Northern VA is located in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.


The University of Virginia, a World Heritage Site, was founded by President Thomas Jefferson.[219]
Virginia's educational method consistently ranks in the top0 states on the U.S. Department of Education's National Assessment of Educational Progress, with Virginia students outperforming the average in all subject areas and grade levels tested.[220] The 2011 Quality Counts document ranked Virginia's K�12 schooling fourth best in the country.[221] All school divisions must adhere to educational standards set forth by the Virginia Department of Schooling, which maintains an assessment and accreditation regime known as the Standards of Learning to be definite accountability.[222] In 2010, 85% of high school students graduated on-time after years.[223] Between 2000 and 2008, school enrollment increased 5%, the number of teachers 21%.[224]

Main article: Schooling in Virginia
A red brick, Neoclassical dome with a giant portico on the front and covered walkway on the sides lit up at dusk. Dark trees border the building on both sides.

As of 2011, there's 176 colleges and universities in Virginia.[231] In the U.S. News & World Document rating of public colleges, the University of Virginia is second, The College of William & Mary is sixth, and Virginia Tech is 25th. [232][233] Virginia Commonwealth University is ranked the top public graduate school in fine arts, while James Madison University has been recognized as the top regional public master's program in The South since 1993.[234][235] The Virginia Military Institute is the oldest state military college as well as a top ranked public liberal arts college.[236][237] George Mason University is the largest university in Virginia with over 32,000 students.[238] Virginia Tech and Virginia State University are the state's land-grant universities. Virginia also operates 23 community colleges on 40 campuses serving over 260,000 students.[239] There's 129 private institutions, including Washington and Lee University, Randolph College, Hampden�Sydney College, Emory & Henry College, Roanoke College, and the University of Richmond, Randolph-Macon College.[231]

Public K�12 schools in Virginia are usually operated by the counties and cities, and not by the state. As of April 2011, a total of one,267,063 students were enrolled in one,873 local and regional schools in the Commonwealth, including charter schools, and an additional 109 alternative and special schooling centers across 132 school divisions.[225][226] Besides the general public schools in Virginia, there's Governor's Schools and selective magnet schools. The Governor's Schools are a collection of over 40 regional high schools and summer programs intended for gifted students.[227] The Virginia Council for Private Schooling oversees the regulation of 320 state accredited and 130 non-accredited private schools.[228][229] An additional 24,682 students get homeschooling.[230]


Virginia has a mixed health record, & is ranked as the 20th overall healthiest state according to the 2011 United Health Foundation's Health Rankings.[240] Virginia also ranks 21st among the states in the rate of premature deaths, 7,100 per 100,000. In 2008, Virginia reached its lowest ever rate of kid mortality, at 6.7 deaths per one,000.[241] There's however racial & social health disparities, in 2010 African Americans experienced 28% more premature deaths than whites, while 13% of Virginians lack any medical insurance. According to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention's 2009 survey, 26% of Virginians are overweight & another 35% are overweight. 78% of residents claim to have exercised at least one time historicallyin the past months.[242][243] About 30% of Virginia's 10- to 17-year-olds are overweight or overweight.[244] Virginia banned smoking in bars & restaurants in January 2010.[245] 19% of Virginians smoke tobacco.[240] Residents of Virginia's 8th congressional district share the longest average life expectancy rate in the nation, over 83 years.[246]

There's 89 hospitals in Virginia listed with the United States Department of Health & Human Services.[247] Notable examples include Inova Fairfax Hospital, the largest hospital in the Washington Metropolitan Area, & the VCU Medical Middle, located on the medical campus of Virginia Commonwealth University. The University of Virginia Medical Middle, part of the University of Virginia Health Technique, is highly ranked in endocrinology according to U.S.News & World Document.[248] Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, part of the Hampton Roads based Sentara Health Technique as well as a teaching institution of Eastern Virginia Medical School, was the site of the first successful in-vitro fertilization birth.[249][250] Virginia has a ratio of 127 primary care physicians per ten,000 residents, which is the 16th highest nationally.[240] Virginia was of states to receive an ideal score in catastrophe preparedness according to a 2008 document by the Trust for America's Health, based on criteria such as detecting pathogens & distributing vaccines & medical supplies.[251]


The Virginia Railway Express runs commuter lines in Northern Virginia.
Because of the 1932 Byrd Road Act, the state government controls most of Virginia's roads, in lieu of a local county authority as is usual in other states.[252] As of 2011, the Virginia Department of Transportation owns and operates 57,867 miles (93,128 km) of the total 70,105 miles (112,823 km) of roads in the state, making it the third largest state highway technique in the United States.[253] Although the Washington Metropolitan Area, which includes Northern Virginia, has the second worst traffic in the nation, Virginia as a whole has the 21st-lowest congestion and the average commute time is 26.9 minutes.[254][255]

Main news story: Transportation in Virginia
Blue and silver train engine with red and white accent lines moves closer leading a series of similarly colored passenger cars with shrubs as well as a sound wall in the background.

Virginia has Amtrak passenger rail service along several corridors, and Virginia Railway Express (VRE) maintains commuter lines in to Washington, D.C. from Fredericksburg and Manassas. VRE is of the nation's quickest growing commuter rail services, handling  twenty,000 passengers a day.[256] The Washington Metro speedy transit technique serves Northern Virginia as far west as communities along I-66 in Fairfax County, with expansion designs to reach Loudoun County by 2017.[257] Major freight railroads in Virginia include Norfolk Southern and CSX Transportation. Commuter buses include the Fairfax Connector and the Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus. The Virginia Department of Transportation operates several free ferries throughout Virginia, the most notable being the Jamestown-Scotland ferry which crosses the James River in Surry County.[258]

Virginia has major airports: Washington Dulles International handling over 23 million passengers a year, and Reagan Washington National which both serve the Washington metropolitan area and most of Northern Virginia, Norfolk International serving the Hampton Roads area, Richmond International, and Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport. Several other airports offer limited commercial passenger service, and sixty-six public airports serve the state's aviation needs.[259] The Virginia Port Authority's main seaports are those in Hampton Roads, which carried 17,726,251 short tons (16,080,984 t) of bulk cargo in 2007, the sixth most of United States ports.[260] The Eastern Shore of Virginia is the site of Wallops Flight Facility, a rocket testing middle owned by NASA, and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, a commercial spaceport.[261][262] Space tourism is also offered through Vienna-based Space Adventures.[263]

Law and government

Principle article: Government of Virginia

All white Neoclassical building with pediment and six segments climbs on a verdant slope with an extensive American elm tree in the left frontal area. Two boxier, yet also styled wings are joined at the building's back.

The Virginia State Capitol, planned by Thomas Jefferson and started by Governor Patrick Henry in 1785, is home to the Virginia General Assembly.

In pioneer Virginia, free men chose the lower place of the lawmaking body, called the House of Burgesses, which together with the Governor's Council, made the "General Assembly". Established in 1619, the Virginia General Assembly is still in presence as the most seasoned governing body in the Western Hemisphere.[264] The advanced government is positioned by the Pew Center on the States with an A− as far as its proficiency, adequacy, and foundation. This is the second time Virginia got the most elevated review in the country, which it imparts to two others.[8]

Since 1971, the administration has worked under the seventh Constitution of Virginia, which accommodates a solid lawmaking body and a bound together legal framework. Like the elected structure, the legislature is isolated in three extensions: administrative, official, and legal. The lawmaking body is the General Assembly, a bicameral body whose 100-part House of Delegates and 40-part Senate compose the laws for the Commonwealth. The Assembly is stronger than the official, as it chooses judges and judges. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor are chosen like clockwork in particular races. Officeholder governors can't run for re-decision, however the Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General can, and governors may serve non-back to back terms.[265] The legal framework, the most established in America, comprises of a progressive system from the Supreme Court of Virginia and the Court of Appeals of Virginia to the Circuit Courts, the trial courts of general ward, and the lower General District Courts and Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Courts.[266]

The Code of Virginia is the statutory law, and comprises of the arranged enactment of the General Assembly. The Virginia State Police is the biggest law implementation organization in Virginia. The Virginia Capitol Police is the most established police division in the United States.[267] The Virginia National Guard comprises of 7,500 troopers in the Virginia Army National Guard and 1,200 aviators in the Virginia Air National Guard.[268] Since the resumption of the death penalty in Virginia in 1982, 107 individuals have been executed, the second most astounding number in the nation.[269] The "aggregate wrongdoing danger" is 28% lower than the national average.[270] Since Virginia finished detainee parole in 1995, the rate of recidivism has tumbled to 28.3%, among the least nationwide.[271] Virginia is an open-convey stat


Principle article: Politics of Virginia

See additionally: Democratic Party of Virginia, Green Party of Virginia, Independent Greens of Virginia, Libertarian Party of Virginia, Political gathering quality in Virginia and Republican Party of Virginia

Presidential races results[272]

Year republicans democrats

2012 47.28% 1,822,522 51.16% 1,971,820

2008 46.33% 1,725,005 52.63% 1,959,532

2004 53.68% 1,716,959 45.48% 1,454,742

2000 52.47% 1,437,490 44.44% 1,217,290

1996 47.10% 1,138,350 45.15% 1,091,060

1992 44.97% 1,150,517 40.59% 1,038,650

1988 59.74% 1,309,162 39.23% 859,799

1984 62.29% 1,337,078 37.09% 796,250

1980 53.03% 989,609 40.31% 752,174

Over the twentieth century, Virginia moved from a to a great extent rustic, politically Southern and preservationist state to a more urbanized, pluralistic, and politically nature. Up until the 1970s, Virginia was a racially partitioned single-gathering state commanded by the Byrd Organization.[273] The legacy of servitude in the state adequately disfranchised African Americans until after entry of social equality enactment in the mid-1960s.[274] Enfranchisement and migration of different gatherings, particularly Hispanics, have put developing significance on minority voting,[275] while voters that recognize as "white working population" declined by three percent somewhere around 2008 and 2012.[276] Regional contrasts have extensive influence in Virginia politics.[277] Rural southern and western zones moved to backing the Republican Party in light of its "southern procedure", while urban and developing suburban territories, including much of Northern Virginia, structure the Democratic Party base.[278][279] Democratic help likewise holds on in union-affected parts of Southwest Virginia, school towns, for example, Charlottesville and Blacksburg, and the southeastern Black Belt Region.[280]

Political gathering quality in Virginia has moreover been in flux. In the 2007 state races, Democrats recovered control of the State Senate, and limited the Republican larger part in the House of Delegates to eight seats.[281] Yet decisions in 2009 brought about the race of Republican Bob Mcdonnell as Governor by a seventeen point edge, the decision of a Republican Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General, and additionally Republican increases of six seats in the House of Delegates.[282] In 2011, the Republican gathering assumed control in excess of two-thirds (68–32) of the seats in the House of Delegates, and a lion's share of the Senate focused around the Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling as the tie-breaker.[283] Following the 2013 decisions, Democrat Terry Mcauliffe was chosen Governor by two and half rate points,[284][285] while Democrat Ralph Northam was chosen Lieutenant Governor by very nearly twofold digits.[286][287] Republicans, on the other hand, kept up their super-larger part (68–32) in the House of Delegates.[286][288] State decision seasons customarily begin with the yearly Shad Planking occasion in Wakefield.[289]

In government decisions since 2006, both gatherings have seen victories. Republican Senator George Allen lost close races in 2006, to Democratic newcomer Jim Webb, and again in 2012, to Webb's substitution, previous Governor Tim Kaine.[290] In 2008, Democrats won both United States Senate seats; previous Governor Mark Warner was chosen to supplant resigning Republican John Warner.[291] Voting for Republican hopefuls in the past ten presidential decisions, Democrat Barack Obama conveyed Virginia's thirteen discretionary votes in both the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections.[276] In the 2010 decisions, Republicans won three United States House of Representatives seats from the Democrats. Of the state's eleven seats in the House of Representatives, Republicans hold eight and Democrats hold three. Virginia is viewed as a "swing state" in future presidential elections


See also: List of professional sports teams in Virginia
A quarterback hands off the footy to his jogging back. The team is wearing Chicago maroon & burnt orange jerseys with white pants.

The Virginia Tech Hokies footy team has the second longest bowl game streak in the nation.[292]
Virginia is the most populous U.S. state without a major professional sports league franchise.[293] The reasons for this include the dearth of any dominant city or market within the state, the propinquity of teams in Washington, D.C. & North Carolina, & a reluctance to publicly finance stadiums.[294][295] Norfolk is host to the highest-level minor league teams in the state: The AAA Norfolk Tides & the AHL's Norfolk Admirals, winners of the 2012 Calder Cup.[296] The San Francisco Giants' AA team, the Richmond Flying Squirrels, began play at The Diamond in 2010, replacing the AAA Richmond Braves, who relocated after 2008.[297] Additionally, the Washington Nationals, Boston Red Sox, Seattle Mariners, Chicago White Sox, & Atlanta Braves also have Single-A & Rookie-level farm teams in Virginia.[298]

Virginia does not permit state appropriated money to be used for either operational or capital expenses for intercollegiate athletics.[301] Despite this, both the Virginia Cavaliers & Virginia Tech Hokies have been able to field competitive teams in the Atlantic Coast Conference & maintain modern facilities. Their rivalry is followed statewide. Several other universities compete in NCAA Division I, in the Atlantic ten Conference & Colonial Athletic Association. historicallyin the past black schools compete in the Division II Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, & others compete in the Division I Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. Several smaller schools compete in the Elderly Dominion Athletic Conference & the USA South Athletic Conference of NCAA Division III. The NCAA currently holds its Division III championships in footy, men's basketball, volleyball & softball in Salem.[302]

The Washington Redskins have Redskins Park, their headquarters, in Ashburn & their training facility is in Richmond,[299] & the Washington Capitals train at Kettler Capitals Iceplex in Ballston. Virginia has lots of professional caliber golf courses including the Greg Norman work at Lansdowne Resort & Kingsmill Resort, home of the Kingsmill Championship. NASCAR currently schedules Dash Cup races on tracks in Virginia: Martinsville Speedway & Richmond International Raceway. Current Virginia drivers in the series include Jeff Burton, Denny Hamlin, & Elliott Sadler.[300]

State symbols

Main editorial: List of Virginia state symbols
A immense square metal sign, mostly white, with the words Virginia Welcomes You in blue & red. In the middle a red cardinal bird sits on a branch with white flowers around it.

The Virginia welcome sign at the Virginia welcome middle on I-95 employs the state bird, the cardinal, & the state tree & flower, the dogwood.
The state nickname is its oldest symbol, though it's never been made official by law. Virginia was given the title "Dominion" by King Charles II of England at the time of The Restoration, because it had remained loyal to the crown in the coursework of the English Civil War, & the present moniker, "Old Dominion" is a reference to that title. Charles' supporters were called Cavaliers, & "The Cavalier State" nickname was popularized after the American Civil War to romanticize the antebellum period. Sports teams from the University of Virginia are called the Cavaliers.[303] The other nickname, "Mother of Presidents", is also historic, as eight Virginians have served as President of the United States, including of the first.[1]

Mammal: Virginia Big-Eared Bat
Beverage: Milk
Boat: Chesapeake Bay deadrise
Bird: Cardinal
Dance: Square dancing
Dog: American Foxhound
Fish: Brook trout, Striped bass
Flower/Tree: Dogwood
Fossil: Chesapecten jeffersonius
Insect: Tiger swallowtail
Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis
Nickname: The Elderly Dominion
Shell: Eastern oyster
Slogan: Virginia is for Lovers
Tartan: Virginia Quadricentennial

The state's motto, Sic Semper Tyrannis, translates from Latin as "Thus Always to Tyrants", & is used on the state seal, which is then used on the flag. While the seal was designed in 1776, & the flag was first used in the 1830s, both were made official in 1930.[1] all of the other symbols were made official in the late 20th century.[304] The Virginia reel is among the square dances classified as the state dance.[17] Virginia currently has no state song. In 1940, Virginia made "Carry Me Back to Elderly Virginny" the state song, but it was retired in 1997 & reclassified as the state song emeritus.[305] Various options, including a version of "Oh Shenandoah", have met with resistance in the Virginia House of Delegates.[306]